Lecture: Energy storage processes
Challenges of the energy sector in the 21st century – Relevance of gas turbines and their transient operation
Variable renewable power generation has introduced new challenges in the operation of European electricity grids. On the one hand, the reduction of the system rotating inertia and sudden generation changes, due to market schedules, lead to significant frequency deviations. On the other hand, the uncertainty in weather forecasts and the inherent variability of wind and solar power systems increase the need for secondary and tertiary reserves. In particular, the demand for positive secondary reserve is expected to increase in the next 10 years in Germany by 40%, whereas the negative by 10 %. Tertiary reserve demand is expected to grow even stronger in Germany, namely by 70% and 90% respectively. Similar trends are expected on a European level.
The projected penetration of renewable generation in Europe in the next decade will frequently lead to more negative residual loads, thus increasing the need for fast and reliable energy storage facilities. It is estimated that approximately 310 GW of additional electricity storage capacity will be needed in the United States, Europe, China and India in order to support the aimed global reduction in CO2 emissions.
Electric energy storage technologies in all stages of development (from commercially available, to system in the development phase), are the topic of this lecture. Apart from the introduction to the technical characteristics of these systems, methods and tools for their energetic and economic analysis will be part of the lecture. These methods will be applied in the course of the accompanying exercise for specific case studies.
Contents of the lecture
· Introduction in electric energy systems and their current challenges.
· Introduction in energetic analysis of electric energy storage systems.
· Introduction in economic analysis of electric energy storage systems
· Analysis of electric energy storage systems.
Some examples of the cycles to be studied are the following:
o Compressed air energy storage systems with gas turbines
o Pumped hydro storage systems
o Batteries (in cooperation with Prof. Kowal)
o Power-to-gas systems
§ Electrolysis + methanization
o Thermoelectric storage systems
o Thermochemical systems